Tag Archives: depression

New book cover, and ebook price is cut to $6.99!

Hi Rez Cover ebook gut brain

I’ve been working on rewriting my book description, as I’ve never liked the one I used. So, today’s post is all about updates on TSF. I’m working on the next book too, and it’s all about applying the information from TSF to everyday life! So, here’s the update so far, with a linky at the bottom:

What if many of the things you thought you knew about being human did not actually work the way you were taught?

What if scientific research into gut bacteria had revealed huge amounts of information about their role in human function, health, emotions and appetite and healthcare hadn’t caught up at all?

What if you could find out the key to controlling your weight without starving yourself or undergoing dangerous surgery?

What if the book you’re looking at could teach you about the explosion of scientific research on the microbiome, without you having to read a few thousand studies to understand it?

You’ve probably heard that our gut bacteria vastly outnumber our human cells, and our gut bacteria’s gene pool includes more than one hundred times the gene count as our human cells. What does that mean and how does it work?

If you’re interested in knowing more about “what makes us tick” physically and emotionally, how to hurt less and age more gracefully, then this book is for you!

If you’re tired of books that state the author’s opinion or make broad claims without scientific backing or support, this book includes about 1300 peer-reviewed research studies, and the e-book has links to those studies on the National Library of Health/National Library of Medicine.

One of the inspirations for this book was research published by the late Prof. Eshel Ben-Jacob, a brilliant Israeli researcher. I was able to share this book with him before he passed away, and this is what he said about it:

“This excellent and long needed book presents in a clear and sound manner the recent dramatic findings about our gut bacteria. These thousands of trillions microorganisms living inside us play a crucial role in regulating our well-being throughout life. The new message is of great importance to the entire medical community, life sciences researchers, as well as the general public. Realizing the role of gut bacteria can help each of us to better understand the effect of nutrients, as mediated by the gut bacteria, on our body in health, in disease and in special times, such as pregnancy, nursing or periods of high stress. For example, we now understand that the massive use of antibiotics in children, adults and agriculture has endangered our vital microbiome and is liable to cause diseases such as Type 2 diabetes on a global scale. The gut microbiome is emerging as a vital part of humanity, without which health and happiness are severely compromised. The time has come for this knowledge to be widely understood!”

Professor Eshel Ben-Jacob, International member of the American Philosophical Society

Professor of Physics
The Maguy-Glass Professor
in Physics of Complex Systems
School of Physics and Astronomy
Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv, Israel

http://www.amazon.com/Symbiont-Factor-Bacteria-Microbiome-Redefines-ebook/dp/B00LV6H1UY/ref=tmm_kin_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1443640302&sr=8-6

A Magnesium-deficient diet results in what changes to the microbiome and behavior?

The microbiome affects brain and behavior, but what affects the microbiome? Well, brain and behavior also do-it’s a two way street-but dietary deficiencies can also affect the microbiome! It turns out that a magnesium deficiency affects the microbiome in a way that produces depression. Make sure you get enough magnesium, as deficiency can also affect your muscles.

To learn how the microbiome affects the brain and behavior, and many other concepts about our bacterial gut symbionts, please check out my book The Symbiont Factor: http://tinyurl.com/pgl98sj

Reference:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25690713

The Symbiont Factor is now a paperback, available on Amazon!

After a year and a half of having a second job as a new author, my first book is finally available in print! A comprehensive, thoroughly referenced guide to how our gut bacteria influence physical and mental health: The Symbiont Factor is now available on Amazon as a paperback! If you ever wondered if and why probiotics are healthy you should read this book. Please share with your contacts 🙂     http://tinyurl.com/pe2g4xt

Brain/Gut/Symbiont function seen as Rock-Paper-Scissors. Or, why you crave french fries and can’t lose weight!

Rock-Paper-Scissors is an ancient Chinese game, often used in modern society instead of flipping a coin. The concept is that each player, on que, puts his hand out flat (paper) or in a Vulcan-like “V” (scissors), or a fist (rock). Each beats the next: scissors cut paper, paper covers rock, rock crushes scissors. It occurred to me that this is quite similar to how symbiont bacteria, the brain, and the gut interact! I’ll explain the short version, then explain more about it. The symbiont bacteria influence the brain, the brain controls the gut (intestines) and the intestines provide a habitat/home for the symbionts. Imbalances in any of these three can therefore affect the next item in the functional triad: Imbalanced symbionts (dysbiosis) can alter brain neurotransmitters, mood, pain perception, cognition, sense of smell, appetite for specific foods and behaviors. Alterations of this type in the brain result in, amongst other things, cravings for specific foods that would benefit the dominant genera of gut symbionts combined with discomfort/lack of satisfaction if those cravings are not met. Here’s a very common example: one pattern of gut bacteria imbalance results in what researchers have termed “obesogens”, dominant populations of bacteria that cause obesity. How do they do that? In part, by altering appetite, olfaction (sense of smell), and frontal lobe processing to create food cravings and increased appetite, specifically for foods that benefit the bacteria-in this case greasy/sweet and fattening foods. Along with this dietary predilection there are behavioral changes that result in lower energy levels, less ambition, and a preference for a sedentary lifestyle that does not burn calories. These behavioral changes have been evaluated in laboratory animals by taking a sterile (no bacteria) animal of normal weight and transferring the gut bacteria from an obese animal to it. The result is a behavioral and appetite/food preference change similar to that which the obese animal had! In other words, the behavior goes with the bacteria. So, what do you do if you want more energy, want to lose weight and get more done? try to work on improving your gut bacteria! Pre and probiotics as well as exercise and dietary changes provide some ways to accomplish this.

Here’s another example of this triad at work: a stressful lifestyle affects the brain’s control of the gut, by altering autonomic function and causing sympathetic (fight-or-flight) dominance. This suppresses the gut digestive process and causes more putrefaction, altering the balance of symbiont populations. Damage to the mucous lining of the intestines and sloughing off of microvilli that normally improve nutrient absorption and house gut bacteria reduce beneficial symbiont populations. What’s the result? As above, weight gain and a cascade of health problems.

The changes to the symbiont bacteria can alter brain function sufficiently to cause depression, anxiety, irritable bowel syndrome, autism, ASD, and altered brain function, personality and pain perception. These are deeply fundamental changes to “who we are” and are representative of the level of influence that the gut symbionts have on our function.

The “rock paper scissors” explanation should also illustrate why researching specific cause-effect/double blind mechanisms are so challenging in this system, as unless the third variable is controlled for (and it often cannot be) the results may be more inconsistent that they would be in a simpler system.

This functional trifecta is one of the reasons why in my clinic, if I recommend an exercise and a dietary change and the patient immediately becomes resistant and “whiney” about making the changes, I record the resistance as a symptom and try to show the patient how their feelings are in fact potential confirmation of this functional system at work!

References:

Modulation of Intestinal Microbiota by the Probiotic VSL#3 Resets Brain Gene Expression and Ameliorates the Age-Related Deficit in LTP.

Distrutti E, O’Reilly JA, McDonald C, Cipriani S, Renga B, Lynch MA, Fiorucci S.

PLoS One. 2014 Sep 9;9(9):e106503. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106503. eCollection 2014.

PMID:
25202975
[PubMed – in process]

Free Article

2.

Gut microbiota, the pharmabiotics they produce and host health.

Patterson E, Cryan JF, Fitzgerald GF, Ross RP, Dinan TG, Stanton C.

Proc Nutr Soc. 2014 Sep 8:1-13. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
25196939
[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
3.

Probiotics normalize the gut-brain-microbiota axis in immunodeficient mice.

Smith CJ, Emge JR, Berzins K, Lung L, Khamishon R, Shah P, Rodrigues DM, Sousa AJ, Reardon C, Sherman PM, Barrett KE, Gareau MG.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Sep 4. pii: ajpgi.00238.2014. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
25190473
[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
4.

Obese-type Gut Microbiota Induce Neurobehavioral Changes in the Absence of Obesity.

Bruce-Keller AJ, Salbaum JM, Luo M, Blanchard E 4th, Taylor CM, Welsh DA, Berthoud HR.

Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Jul 18. pii: S0006-3223(14)00520-4. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.07.012. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
25173628
[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
5.

Enteric Bacterial Metabolites Propionic and Butyric Acid Modulate Gene Expression, Including CREB-Dependent Catecholaminergic Neurotransmission, in PC12 Cells – Possible Relevance to Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Nankova BB, Agarwal R, MacFabe DF, La Gamma EF.

PLoS One. 2014 Aug 29;9(8):e103740. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103740. eCollection 2014.

PMID:
25170769
[PubMed – in process]

Free PMC Article

6.

Altered brain-gut axis in autism: Comorbidity or causative mechanisms?

Mayer EA, Padua D, Tillisch K.

Bioessays. 2014 Oct;36(10):933-9. doi: 10.1002/bies.201400075. Epub 2014 Aug 22.

PMID:
25145752
[PubMed – in process]
7.

Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms.

Alcock J, Maley CC, Aktipis CA.

Bioessays. 2014 Oct;36(10):940-9. doi: 10.1002/bies.201400071. Epub 2014 Aug 8.

PMID:
25103109
[PubMed – in process]
8.

Microbiota-host interactions in irritable bowel syndrome: epithelial barrier, immune regulation and brain-gut interactions.

Hyland NP, Quigley EM, Brint E.

World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul 21;20(27):8859-66. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i27.8859.

PMID:
25083059
[PubMed – in process]

Free PMC Article

9.

Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis.

O’Mahony SM, Clarke G, Borre YE, Dinan TG, Cryan JF.

Behav Brain Res. 2014 Jul 29. pii: S0166-4328(14)00476-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.07.027. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
25078296
[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
10.

Digesting the emerging role for the gut microbiome in central nervous system demyelination.

Joscelyn J, Kasper LH.

Mult Scler. 2014 Jul 28. pii: 1352458514541579. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID:
25070675
[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
11.

The impact of microbiota on brain and behavior: mechanisms & therapeutic potential.

Borre YE, Moloney RD, Clarke G, Dinan TG, Cryan JF.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;817:373-403. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0897-4_17.

PMID:
24997043
[PubMed – in process]
12.

Microbiota-gut-brain axis and cognitive function.

Gareau MG.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;817:357-71. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0897-4_16.

PMID:
24997042
[PubMed – in process]

Symbiotic Gut Bacteria and The Meaning of Life. How Does it Feel to be 1% Human?

cropped-cover08.jpg
The last decade of research has advanced the understanding of life itself to such a degree that our definitions of “life” must now be adjusted. Until now, you may have regarded yourself as a singular entity; a “human being,” a “person” or just “me.” All of these terms indicate a belief system grounded in what is now an outdated concept. What if we were actually a cooperative group of organisms existing together for mutual benefit? Trillions of organisms, all sharing physical space and each contributing to the functioning of the whole. What if even our very consciousness were not a singular thing or the result of one personality, but more of a democratic/summative system or even a type of hive consciousness? All of these are functional realities to one extent or another. Oh, and one more thing…those human cells? They are in the minority and are outnumbered at least 10:1. Well, you might be thinking, a human being is defined by a specific genetic code, 23 pairs of chromosomes, a little over 21,000 genes that code for everything we are, right? Not so fast! Genes do encode for the protein molecules that carry out life functions, but if a person were to develop with only those 21,000 genes the brain, nervous system, immune system, endocrine and digestive systems would not develop or function normally at all. So where does all the other information come from?

“We” are an organism that includes several trillion symbiont organisms that all contribute genes. In fact, looking at a person from head to toe genetically reveals that the human genes are only 1/100th, or 1 percent, of the genes present. The majority of the remaining genome is bacterial in origin. We are only 1% or less human from a genetic standpoint! Scientists and researchers now know that the human body depends on this bacterial genetic reservoir of information for normal development and function. The human immune system, for example, is cultivated by the bacteria and “taught” how to function, what to kill and what to tolerate. Without this ancient genetic wisdom (bacteria have existed for an estimated 2 billion years) the human immune system does not function normally. Our brain is no different; without bacterial symbiont assistance the human brain is emotionally and functionally unstable. The result is an inflamed brain, anxiety and depression or schizophrenia, and an increased likelyhood of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, or neuroimmune conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis. The digestive tract would not function normally either! Even our mind, that last refuge of a singular “self,” is not the result of a singular organism’s activities. Dominant colonies of bacteria wield significant influence on our mood, decision making and basic personality. Our appetite for specific food items as well as our overall appetite is heavily influenced by gut bacteria. Neurotransmitters that determine mood are both produced and consumed by the gut bacteria, exerting influence over mood. Neurotransmitter receptor sites in various specific areas of the human brain are sensitized or desensitized by symbiont bacteria. The result is a distinctly different emotional profile and personality! It is truly the result of the interactions of many organisms.
Our human parts in turn “farm” these bacterial colonies to keep them viable and performing their needed tasks.

The terms that have been coined for these concepts refer to “us” as Holobionts-a host plus its symbionts form the organism we call “human.” The total gene pool within the holobiont is called the Hologenome. All other eukaryotic life is thought to exist on the same principle of cooperative function between host and symbionts. The bacterial symbionts are capable of influencing mate choice, reproductive success and driving speciation to create new species from existing ones (really.)

After re-reading the previous discussion, you might be incredulous that life itself has been essentially redefined, and yet it did not really result in significant changes in healthcare practices. This is perhaps the most promising yet overlooked, proven yet controversial new development in decades. Healthcare is replete with legions of “singular organism, flat-earth-society” members who are slow to accept this new concept despite its promise of more effective interventions. As examples of the conflicts in logic that result, consider the following questions-each of which may be the subject of another blog post and are written of in The Symbiont Factor.

-If the body is dependent on symbiont bacteria for normal function, what is the result of taking antibiotics?
-If antibiotics are added to our food, what is the effect on our own personal hologenome?
-If food is routinely disinfected, what is the effect on hologenomic diversity?
-What are the long-term consequences of bacteria sharing plasmids (DNA fragments) that code for antibiotic resistance?
-If symbiont bacteria maintain immune system function, why do we kill them in cases of infection or cancer, when the immune system is needed the most?
-If so much physical and mental function depend on gut bacteria, why do we not evaluate the gut bacteria when something seems physically or mentally dysfunctional?
-Where do all of these symbiont bacteria come from in the environment?
-What is the effect of chemical environmental pollution on the potential microbiome?
-How does nutrition affect their population demographics?
-If two people have differing microbiomes, would a given medication affect them differently?
-Do different birthing and childcare practices affect the hologenomic outcome?
-If the bacterial symbionts have such an influence on human emotion and personality, why is this not addressed in psychology and psychiatry practice?
-How does being a holobiont with such a diverse colony of bacteria provide an evolutionary or competitive advantage?

As we move forward into the 21st century, we must strive to add holobiont concepts to the practice of healthcare and teach individuals why “taking care of yourself” might need to become “taking care of each other.” Perhaps better pollution control, for example, would be more meaningful if people understood that it isn’t only to save some small toad that lives far away, but also to save the bacterial diversity that our future depends on. Perhaps parenting practices would mean more when the importance of imparting a beneficial microbiome/hologenome to our children is better understood. These concepts form the basis for The Symbiont Factor, referenced with more than 1300 peer-reviewed research papers and due to be published by 15 June 2014.