Tag Archives: antibiotic resistance

New book cover, and ebook price is cut to $6.99!

Hi Rez Cover ebook gut brain

I’ve been working on rewriting my book description, as I’ve never liked the one I used. So, today’s post is all about updates on TSF. I’m working on the next book too, and it’s all about applying the information from TSF to everyday life! So, here’s the update so far, with a linky at the bottom:

What if many of the things you thought you knew about being human did not actually work the way you were taught?

What if scientific research into gut bacteria had revealed huge amounts of information about their role in human function, health, emotions and appetite and healthcare hadn’t caught up at all?

What if you could find out the key to controlling your weight without starving yourself or undergoing dangerous surgery?

What if the book you’re looking at could teach you about the explosion of scientific research on the microbiome, without you having to read a few thousand studies to understand it?

You’ve probably heard that our gut bacteria vastly outnumber our human cells, and our gut bacteria’s gene pool includes more than one hundred times the gene count as our human cells. What does that mean and how does it work?

If you’re interested in knowing more about “what makes us tick” physically and emotionally, how to hurt less and age more gracefully, then this book is for you!

If you’re tired of books that state the author’s opinion or make broad claims without scientific backing or support, this book includes about 1300 peer-reviewed research studies, and the e-book has links to those studies on the National Library of Health/National Library of Medicine.

One of the inspirations for this book was research published by the late Prof. Eshel Ben-Jacob, a brilliant Israeli researcher. I was able to share this book with him before he passed away, and this is what he said about it:

“This excellent and long needed book presents in a clear and sound manner the recent dramatic findings about our gut bacteria. These thousands of trillions microorganisms living inside us play a crucial role in regulating our well-being throughout life. The new message is of great importance to the entire medical community, life sciences researchers, as well as the general public. Realizing the role of gut bacteria can help each of us to better understand the effect of nutrients, as mediated by the gut bacteria, on our body in health, in disease and in special times, such as pregnancy, nursing or periods of high stress. For example, we now understand that the massive use of antibiotics in children, adults and agriculture has endangered our vital microbiome and is liable to cause diseases such as Type 2 diabetes on a global scale. The gut microbiome is emerging as a vital part of humanity, without which health and happiness are severely compromised. The time has come for this knowledge to be widely understood!”

Professor Eshel Ben-Jacob, International member of the American Philosophical Society

Professor of Physics
The Maguy-Glass Professor
in Physics of Complex Systems
School of Physics and Astronomy
Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv, Israel


The Problem with RoundUp and its health effects


The Problem with RoundUp and its health effects
Sometimes during a debate it becomes obvious that one side is simply not telling the truth. Such seems to be the case when considering RoundUp, currently still promoted as the safest herbicide ever produced. It is also the most commonly used, with a recorded 187 million pounds used by US farmers in 2007. More current usage is not known, but estimated at over 200 million pounds in the US. The maker of RoundUp, Monsanto, continues to maintain that it is nontoxic and completely safe. This belief permeates to those who use it, with readers offering comments at the end of the article defending its safety. Most homeowners use RoundUp to control weeds, and most farmers use it liberally on crops. This is possible because of genetic modification of crops to permit resistance to glyphosate, permitting the killing of weeds without killing the crop. Recently articles have been published online suggesting that the problem with wheat causing celiac disease or gluten sensitivity has more to do with residual levels of glyphosate than with gluten content. The suggestion that pre-harvest spraying of crops with glyphosate to reduce weed content, promote dessication and improve yield is typically met with a hailstorm of accusations of “pseudoscience” and “fearmongering.” There are usually some vehement denials that pre-harvest spraying is ever carried out. An example of one such article can be found here: http://tinyurl.com/n9rtzpn

With this in mind let us consider two questions: Is glyphosate toxic, and are crops really sprayed prior to harvest?

The reason that glyphosate is “considered safe” is that it inhibits a metabolic pathway in plants known as the Shikimate pathway. This inhibition interrupts the plant’s metabolism and kills it. Humans and other eukaryotic species do not have a Shikimate pathway, and so the claim of safety appears to be scientifically sound…or is it? All eukaryotic organisms including humans have cellular power-producing structures known as mitochondria. These structures are where energy is produced so that the cell and the organism have fuel. Mitochondria, however, are really not of human origin. Thought to be the end result of ancient indwelling symbionts (endosymbiont theory if you’d like to look that up) mitochondria are more similar to bacteria than human cells. Their DNA is circular, just as bacterial DNA is circular. This isn’t some new discovery as geneticists have been using this mitochondrial DNA to track the human family tree for years. You see, mitochondrial DNA is matrilineal-it is only inherited from the mother, not from the father. This provides a unique opportunity to track one side of the family tree more accurately than is possible with human DNA. It’s also the first clue to glyphosate’s toxicity, as bacteria have a Shikimate pathway! Predictably mitochondria also have a Shikimate pathway. There is already a research paper stating this (Mesnage, Seneff). There is also an effect in the microbiome, as glyphosate is more toxic to some microorganisms than to others, causing an imbalance in this critical ecosystem. Kruger found that glyphosate reduced the inhibition of Clostridium (a pathogen) by Enterococcus species, causing imbalance and disease. A differential toxic effect was found in chickens by Shehata, who showed the glyphosate inibited beneficial microbial species yet did not inhibit pathogenic ones. Changes in gut bacteria in humans can alter serotonin levels, affecting behavior, mood and susceptibility to brain trauma (Morley). The microbiome living in our intestines are critical to our health and are vulnerable to changes in intestinal function (Matthews). It has been found that at very dilute concentrations, far less than commercial farming uses, glyphosate reduces intestinal motility (Chlopecka). This would result in more constipation, dramatic shifts in population dynamics and an increased risk of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) due to reduced motility allowing contents of the colon to move into the small intestine. Glyphosate has been found to trigger pathways producing cellular apoptosis (think cell sepuku) and increased reactive oxygen species producing damaging oxidation (Chaufan).
There is always someone who, in the comments following an article critical of Roundup, offers to drink a glass of it to prove its safety. This is ill advised, as glyphosate is far from nontoxic. Instead, it has been found to produce respiratory depression, bradycardia (so, you can’t breathe and your heart slows), acidosis, hyperkalemia, cardiac block or arrythmia and death. Hemodialysis and intubation are required to help the patient survive, as there is no antidote to glyphosate poisoning (Garlich, Gress).

Okay, so Roundup is definitely toxic in many ways even at small doses. What about all of the people who argue that it is not recommended for use before harvest? Doing a basic search on the internet looking for pre-harvest advice as a farmer provides some insight into this! Monsanto itself provides a “Pre-Harvest Staging Guide” for using RoundUp: http://tinyurl.com/q2o8f96. North Dakota State University published “Glyphosate as a Pre-Harvest Aid in Small Grains” July 2014: http://tinyurl.com/ll98tfj. Michigan State University published something similar for soybeans: http://tinyurl.com/o6f5dqy. University of Arizona Extension also got in on the game, publishing a guide to pre-harvest spraying of wheat to kill broad-leaf weeds: http://tinyurl.com/ljs6547. Similar publishing can be found at http://tinyurl.com/l69bdzc, http://tinyurl.com/kbem9ht, http://tinyurl.com/k6o4lwf, and http://tinyurl.com/m7nxm6a.

You might notice that many of these organizations providing pre-harvest spraying guidelines are university agricultural programs. If you’re not familiar with ag programs, you might even wonder why they would recommend such a practice in light of the research information on glyphosate’s biologic effects (and there are many more articles showing its effects; I didn’t even scratch the surface really!). The old adage of “follow the money” could never be more accurate: http://tinyurl.com/mhyvwzy, http://tinyurl.com/ctw2aq7 as the codependent relationship that has evolved between Monsanto and institutes of higher education is both diabolically brilliant and nauseatingly common.

If you needed more reasons to shop for organically grown fruits and vegetables or use grains other than wheat, you now have them. If you think just avoiding wheat will solve the problem, consider that the same recommendations exist for barley, oats, flax, canola, peas, lentils, soybeans and dried beans (page 31 of http://tinyurl.com/q2o8f96 lists all of these as recommendations for pre-harvest spraying in Canada, and others list ‘small grains’ in the guidelines: http://tinyurl.com/o994mk2).

We have arrived at a time in history when the business interests of corporate entities often take precedence over the health needs of society’s human members. When we allow large corporations to control what is taught in schools and what guidelines are imposed by government, we can count on one thing-being counted out of the deal.

References quoted:
1: Shaw CA, Seneff S, Kette SD, Tomljenovic L, Oller JW Jr, Davidson RM.
Aluminum-induced entropy in biological systems: implications for neurological
disease. J Toxicol. 2014;2014:491316. doi: 10.1155/2014/491316. Epub 2014 Oct 2.
Review. PubMed PMID: 25349607; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4202242.
2: Gress S, Lemoine S, Séralini GE, Puddu PE. Glyphosate-Based Herbicides
Potently Affect Cardiovascular System in Mammals: Review of the Literature.
Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2014 Sep 23. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25245870.
3: Chłopecka M, Mendel M, Dziekan N, Karlik W. Glyphosate affects the spontaneous
motoric activity of intestine at very low doses – in vitro study. Pestic Biochem
Physiol. 2014 Jul;113:25-30. doi: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.06.005. Epub 2014 Jun 24.
PubMed PMID: 25052523.
4: Morley WA, Seneff S. Diminished brain resilience syndrome: A modern day
neurological pathology of increased susceptibility to mild brain trauma,
concussion, and downstream neurodegeneration. Surg Neurol Int. 2014 Jun 18;5:97.
doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.134731. eCollection 2014. Review. PubMed PMID: 25024897;
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4093745.
5: Mahendrakar K, Venkategowda PM, Rao SM, Mutkule DP. Glyphosate surfactant
herbicide poisoning and management. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2014
May;18(5):328-30. doi: 10.4103/0972-5229.132508. PubMed PMID: 24914265; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC4047698.
6: Schinasi L, Leon ME. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and occupational exposure to
agricultural pesticide chemical groups and active ingredients: a systematic
review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Apr
23;11(4):4449-527. doi: 10.3390/ijerph110404449. Review. PubMed PMID: 24762670;
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4025008.
7: Mesnage R, Defarge N, Spiroux de Vendômois J, Séralini GE. Major pesticides
are more toxic to human cells than their declared active principles. Biomed Res
Int. 2014;2014:179691. doi: 10.1155/2014/179691. Epub 2014 Feb 26. PubMed PMID:
24719846; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3955666.
8: Samsel A, Seneff S. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue
and gluten intolerance. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2013 Dec;6(4):159-84. doi:
10.2478/intox-2013-0026. Review. PubMed PMID: 24678255; PubMed Central PMCID:
9: Chaufan G, Coalova I, Ríos de Molina Mdel C. Glyphosate commercial formulation
causes cytotoxicity, oxidative effects, and apoptosis on human cells: differences
with its active ingredient. Int J Toxicol. 2014 Jan-Feb;33(1):29-38. doi:
10.1177/1091581813517906. Epub 2014 Jan 16. PubMed PMID: 24434723.
10: Garlich FM, Goldman M, Pepe J, Nelson LS, Allan MJ, Goldstein DA, Goldfarb
DS, Hoffman RS. Hemodialysis clearance of glyphosate following a life-threatening
ingestion of glyphosate-surfactant herbicide. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014
Jan;52(1):66-71. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2013.870344. PubMed PMID: 24400933.
11: Krüger M, Shehata AA, Schrödl W, Rodloff A. Glyphosate suppresses the
antagonistic effect of Enterococcus spp. on Clostridium botulinum. Anaerobe. 2013
Apr;20:74-8. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2013.01.005. Epub 2013 Feb 6. PubMed PMID:
12: Shehata AA, Schrödl W, Aldin AA, Hafez HM, Krüger M. The effect of glyphosate
on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro.
Curr Microbiol. 2013 Apr;66(4):350-8. doi: 10.1007/s00284-012-0277-2. Epub 2012
Dec 9. PubMed PMID: 23224412.

The Symbiont Factor is now a paperback, available on Amazon!

After a year and a half of having a second job as a new author, my first book is finally available in print! A comprehensive, thoroughly referenced guide to how our gut bacteria influence physical and mental health: The Symbiont Factor is now available on Amazon as a paperback! If you ever wondered if and why probiotics are healthy you should read this book. Please share with your contacts 🙂     http://tinyurl.com/pe2g4xt

Clostridium difficile, bacterial census and gut ecology restoration

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????There are many conditions that result at least in part from bacterial dysbiosis, or imbalanced gut bacteria. As gut symbionts, our bacterial microbiome is vital to normal immune function as well as neurologic/brain function and hormonal balance. Some of the diseases or conditions that occur from dysbiosis can be life-threatening! One such example is a Clostridium difficile reaction. This species of bacteria can cause a gut infection usually known as “c-diff”, and this infection is most often acquired in a hospital. One case I recently became aware of was caused by a colonoscopy procedure. Clostridium infections often happen after antibiotic use as a result of the antibiotic suppressing the normal healthy bacteria that keep Clostridium difficile bacteria populations suppressed.

C-diff is usually treated with strong antibiotics such as vancomycin, which reduces the infection but also further imbalances the dysbiosis (as well as encouraging the formation of antibiotic resistant strains of C. difficile). While this may be necessary if there is an acute flareup, long term stabilization is only accomplished through restoration of the microbiome. Often the first step in gut restoration is a bacterial census, or tallying up what bacteria live in your colon.

There are different tests available, but I am going to look specifically at two tests: Metametrix GI Effects Microbial Ecology Profile Stool, and the tests that ubiome.com offer. A sample test of Metametrix can be found here: http://tinyurl.com/ohzzrzx

A good video that shows the depth of information available from the ubiome test can be seen on this video: http://tinyurl.com/k7ky7gj

Reviewing these two sources of data immediately should illustrate a critical difference: the Metametrix test report only provides genus but not species specificity. In many cases the genus does not provide enough information without the species. On the other hand, the ubiome test provides many layers of information that can be re-sorted to answer different questions. Data is available all the way down to the species level, and even linked to Wikipedia entries for that specific species. The Metametrix test can show large, genus-level imbalances and generalized patterns, but for someone evaluating not only Clostridium difficile populations, but also the populations of beneficial bacteria that reduce its effects (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis are examples that come to mind) the Metametrix data set is clearly lacking. What you really need to know is not only what the C. difficile levels are, but also its antagonists! A complete deficiency in antagonists can permit moderate levels of Clostridium difficile to produce disasterous infections.

What other factors can help to restore gut ecology? Here is a short list:

1. Mental: stress is bad for beneficial gut bacteria; relaxation and deep breathing, yoga etc. are good stress reductions, but do what works for you! Freediving is what works for me, as an example. Good stress reduction helps the gut to be a good environment for beneficial organisms.

2. Nutritional: When you choose what you eat, you’re choosing which populations of gut organisms you feed. Feel like a donut? you’re feeding yeast and other less beneficial species! A good green smoothie such as those made with a Nutri-bullet are gut bacteria superfood. McDonalds? quite the opposite. The “Western Diet” is the research standard in producing a sick lab animal, and it does the same for humans!

3. Food Sensitivities: IgG or Immunoglobulin G tests can identify immune sensitization to food ingredients. If you have a food sensitivity, eating that food will initialize an immune inflammatory cascade that makes your gut lining slough off and look more like sunburn-a very poor environment for gut symbionts. In addition, intestinal permeability goes up, pieces of bacterial protein (LPS; lipopolysaccharides) can translocate across the intestinal barrier into the bloodstream and cause a myriad of other problems in the body. Food sensitivities are often foods that we like, eat often, and are otherwise healthy. I’ve seen sensitivity to olives, chicken, flax, dairy, cinnamon as well as pesticides, Agent Orange, food colors and similar ingredients. Getting tested is the shortest road to knowing what to avoid. For someone fighting Cdiff, it may be the only road.

4: Supplements that can help: Kefir decreases the effects of Clostridium difficile toxins, and reduce C. difficile growth. It is also protective against Clostridium difficile. Coconut oil reduces Clostridium difficile as well. Curcumin is a very potent anti-inflammatory that can help to reduce systemic inflammatory reactions and help heal the gut lining. L-Glutamine is also a great supplement to speed healing of the gut and make it a better place for healthy gut bacteria. Of course probiotics can help, with some of the ones showing more different species showing promise (a good example would be from Prescript-Assist).

5. Medical/DIY procedures: the biggest one that comes to mind is FMT or Fecal Microbial Transplant. This is increasingly showing promise and for many individuals helps a great deal. It is probable that its success still depends on items 1-3 above, however, and having a major food allergy, not sleeping enough, or eating poorly can make the newly introduced population of gut bacteria unsustainable, requiring repeat procedures. Use of encapsulated feces is one possibility, although some have expressed concern at potentially causing SIBO or small intestine bacterial overgrowth as colonic bacteria are different than small intestinal bacteria. Every area of the body has an “optimal microbiome” and yet what is optimum varies between individuals. It is important t remember this when comparing microbiomes on test reports!

For more answers and a great deal more information, see my book on Amazon here:   It is also available in print here: . The printed version should be on Amazon as well within one week.

references for this article:

Role of the intestinal microbiota in resistance to colonization by Clostridium difficile.

Britton RA, Young VB.

Gastroenterology. 2014 May;146(6):1547-53. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.01.059. Epub 2014 Feb 4. Review.

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Select item 243287002.

Antimicrobial effects of virgin coconut oil and its medium-chain fatty acids on Clostridium difficile.

Shilling M, Matt L, Rubin E, Visitacion MP, Haller NA, Grey SF, Woolverton CJ.

J Med Food. 2013 Dec;16(12):1079-85. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2012.0303.

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Select item 235421163.

Protective effect of a mixture of kefir-isolated lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in a hamster model of Clostridium difficile infection.

Bolla PA, Carasi P, Bolla Mde L, De Antoni GL, Serradell Mde L.

Anaerobe. 2013 Jun;21:28-33. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2013.03.010. Epub 2013 Mar 29.

[PubMed – in process]
Select item 234710384.

In vitro inhibition of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens by commercial probiotic strains.

Schoster A, Kokotovic B, Permin A, Pedersen PD, Dal Bello F, Guardabassi L.

Anaerobe. 2013 Apr;20:36-41. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2013.02.006. Epub 2013 Mar 5.

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Select item 232177325.

Kefir-isolated Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis inhibits the cytotoxic effect of Clostridium difficile in vitro.

Bolla PA, Carasi P, Serradell Mde L, De Antoni GL.

J Dairy Res. 2013 Feb;80(1):96-102. doi: 10.1017/S0022029912000623. Epub 2012 Dec 10.

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Select item 228950826.

Lactic acid production by Streptococcus thermophilus alters Clostridium difficile infection and in vitro Toxin A production.

Kolling GL, Wu M, Warren CA, Durmaz E, Klaenhammer TR, Timko MP, Guerrant RL.

Gut Microbes. 2012 Nov-Dec;3(6):523-9. doi: 10.4161/gmic.21757. Epub 2012 Aug 16. Erratum in: Gut Microbes. 2013 Mar-Apr;4(2):175. Timko, Michael P [added].

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Free PMC Article

Select item 226772627.

In vitro evaluation of single- and multi-strain probiotics: Inter-species inhibition between probiotic strains, and inhibition of pathogens.

Chapman CM, Gibson GR, Rowland I.

Anaerobe. 2012 Aug;18(4):405-13. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2012.05.004. Epub 2012 Jun 4.

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Select item 221269768.

Surface proteins from Lactobacillus kefir antagonize in vitro cytotoxic effect of Clostridium difficile toxins.

Carasi P, Trejo FM, Pérez PF, De Antoni GL, Serradell Mde L.

Anaerobe. 2012 Feb;18(1):135-42. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.11.002. Epub 2011 Nov 22.

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Select item 226241069.

Quantitative real time PCR detection of Clostridium difficile growth inhibition by probiotic organisms.

Folkers BL, Schuring C, Essmann M, Larsen B.

N Am J Med Sci. 2010 Jan;2(1):5-10. doi: 10.4297/najms.2010.15.


Free PMC Article

Select item 1970831410.

Resolution of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea using staggered antibiotic withdrawal and kefir.

Bakken JS.

Minn Med. 2009 Jul;92(7):38-40.

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

What your Doctor Isn’t Telling You about Antibiotics

Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat in the world. The concept is simple enough: the frequent use of antibiotics causes bacteria to develop resistance. Antibiotic resistance is easily shared among bacteria, potentially resulting in pathogenic bacteria becoming drug resistant. Why is that such a big deal? Because then if you get an infection antibiotics will have no effect! Even a mild pathogen can become fatal through this mechanism.

Many people think that it is only those in the natural/alternative health community who are opposed to the frequent use of antibiotics. This is simply not true! The CDC (Centers for Disease Control) and WHO (World Health Organization) are both advising patients and their doctors to not use antibiotics except in specific cases. That doesn’t seem to be what is really happening however, as my patients report that their family doctors put them on antibiotics for almost everything including all of the conditions the CDC warns not to use antibiotics for.

If that weren’t bad enough, antibiotics are used a great deal on farm animals, resulting in antibiotic exposure even if you don’t get any prescription antibiotics. Antibiotic resistant “superbugs” are now being found in food destined for human consumption, an ominous indicator of the spread of resistance.

There are now “nightmare superbugs” affecting the elderly and frail in healthcare settings, completely resistant to the strongest antibiotics available. This has the potential of becoming an epidemic, yet most people (and most of their doctors) remain either ignorant or skeptical of the facts.

What can you do to protect yourself and limit your contribution to a potential plague? First, learn the CDC guidelines and remind your doctor about them. Secondly, learn how to keep your microbiome (your internal population of beneficial bacteria) healthy and functioning. Learn how to keep your immune system protecting you-in other words, work at being healthy! Understanding how antibacterial soaps and disinfectants may promote these problems (which is very counter-intuitive) is also a good idea.

Please take a moment and read some of the articles I’ve linked below:







Why Antibacterial Soaps May Promote Infections and Disease

Many soaps, shampoos, toothpastes and cleaners have an ingredient called Triclosan. This ingredient is supposed to help kill bacteria, but bacteria are highly adaptable and develop resistance. It has been found that using products with triclosan may result in increased colonization of the nasal cavities with Staphylococcus aureus. Having a Staph infection in your nose is not only very uncomfortable but also dangerous, as Staph infections can spread through the body. Sinus infections that are severe can also result in encephalitis if the bacteria succeed in compromising the membranes protecting the brain!

Triclosan has also been found in streams and water systems, where it is fueling the development of resistant strains of bacteria. Once bacteria form DNA sequences for resistance, they share this DNA on short fragments called plasmids. In this way, resistance to antimicrobial substances spreads quickly through bacterial colonies and even across different species.

Triclosan and a related product, octylphenol, have also been found to disrupt the endocrine system, causing hormonal imbalance and breast cancer. These products are in a category known ad EDC’s or endocrine disrupting chemicals and have been found in the urine of 75% of Americans.

Because these chemicals are antimicrobial, they have the effect of damaging the microbiome in the human body. Without a balanced microbiome, the immune system does not develop normally and the result can be dysfunctions ranging from allergies to autoimmune conditions.

Triclosan has also been found to reduce heart and skeletal muscle function in animals-resulting in heart problems and muscle weakness.

Sometimes, it is possible to be too clean and too sanitary! Using products with triclosan is one example. It is likely, based on triclosan as an example, that other antimicrobial ingredients may promote similar problems. So, read the ingredients and steer clear!